vitamins deficiency symptoms

Sodium and blood pressure

Salt is essential for life. Salt consists from sodium and chloride. Only 10 percent of salt intake is from the salt in unprocessed foods such as fruits and vegetables. Three-quarters of the salt most people eat is hidden in processed foods. Many processed foods have high sodium content without tasting salty. About 10 percent of normal salt intake is from salt added in the kitchen or at the table.
sodiumMost natural foods start out with an abundance of potassium and very little sodium. During food processing, this balance gets reversed. Processed foods contain less potassium and excess sodium.
Sodium regulates fluid balance along with potassium. It required for nerve conduction and muscle function, assists absorption of chloride, amino acids, glucose, and water; regulates blood volume and blood pressure.

Sodium deficiency

Deficiency is rare. Sodium deficiency is called hyponatremia. Low blood levels of sodium (hyponatremia) may be caused by fluid retention or excess sodium loss (excessive sweating, prolonged exercise, severe and prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, and kidney disease).

Sodium deficiency occurs also in result of inadequate dietary intakes. In rare cases, excessive water intake can cause low sodium levels in the blood. Hyponatremia can be caused by prolonged, excessive sweating, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea, or the use of some diuretics. Symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, muscle cramps, fainting, fatigue, coma, disorientation and brain damage.
Hyponatremia is something to watch for with intense sport competitions that last for many hours.

Sodium food sources

Salt, processed foods, soy sauce, pickles, snack foods (chips, pretzels, salted nuts), and canned tomato juice

Side effects and toxicity

Excess sodium intake is linked to gastric cancer, osteoporosis, elevated blood pressure, and kidney stones. Reducing sodium intake may help to reduce the risk of these conditions.
Ingestion of a high amount may cause also edema, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.


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